One out of five falls causes a serious injury such as broken bones or a head injury.
Each year, 2.8 million older people are treated in emergency departments for fall injuries.
Over 800,000 patients a year are hospitalized because of a fall injury, most often because of a head injury or hip fracture.
Each year at least 300,000 older people are hospitalized for hip fractures.
More than 95% of hip fractures are caused by falling,7 usually by falling sideways.
Falls are the most common cause of traumatic brain injuries (TBI).
Adjusted for inflation, the direct medical costs for fall injuries are $31 billion annually.10 Hospital costs account for two-thirds of the total.
What Can Happen After a Fall?
Many falls do not cause injuries. But one out of five falls does cause a serious injury such as a broken bone or a head injury. These injuries can make it hard for a person to get around, do everyday activities, or live on their own.
Falls can cause broken bones, like wrist, arm, ankle, and hip fractures.
Falls can cause head injuries. These can be very serious, especially if the person is taking certain medicines (like blood thinners). An older person who falls and hits their head should see their doctor right away to make sure they don’t have a brain injury.
Many people who fall, even if they’re not injured, become afraid of falling. This fear may cause a person to cut down on their everyday activities. When a person is less active, they become weaker and this increases their chances of falling.
What Conditions Make You More Likely to Fall?
Research has identified many conditions that contribute to falling. These are called risk factors. Many risk factors can be changed or modified to help prevent falls. They include:
Lower body weakness
Vitamin D deficiency (that is, not enough vitamin D in your system)
Difficulties with walking and balance
Use of medicines, such as tranquilizers, sedatives, or antidepressants. Even some over-the-counter medicines can affect balance and how steady you are on your feet.
Foot pain or poor footwear
Home hazards or dangers such as
broken or uneven steps, and
throw rugs or clutter that can be tripped over.
Most falls are caused by a combination of risk factors. The more risk factors a person has, the greater their chances of falling.
Healthcare providers can help cut down a person’s risk by reducing the fall risk factors listed above.
What You Can Do to Prevent Falls
Falls can be prevented. These are some simple things you can do to keep yourself from falling.
Talk to Your Doctor
Ask your doctor or healthcare provider to evaluate your risk for falling and talk with them about specific things you can do.
Ask your doctor or pharmacist to review your medicines to see if any might make you dizzy or sleepy. This should include prescription medicines and over-the counter medicines.
Ask your doctor or healthcare provider about taking vitamin D supplements.
Make Your Home Safer
Get rid of things you could trip over.
Add grab bars inside and outside your tub or shower and next to the toilet.
Put railings on both sides of stairs.
Make sure your home has lots of light by adding more or brighter light bulbs.
Do Strength and Balance Exercises
Physical Therapy. Muscle training and exercises may help you with strength, flexibility, balance, motor development and mobility, home, bathing and feeding.
Braces or splints may be recommended will help with function, such as improved walking. Others may stretch stiff muscles to help prevent rigid muscles contractures.
Occupational Therapy. Using alternative strategies and adaptive equipment, occupational therapists work to promote, independent participation in daily activities and routines in the home, and the community.
Adaptive equipment may include walkers, quadrupedal canes, seating systems or electric wheelchairs.